College of Education *
College of Education *
Steven Klees (CHSE)
Steven Klees
Contact Information:
Room: 3112-B Benjamin Building
Phone: (301) 405-2212

Steven Klees (Ph.D., Stanford University)
Professor, International Education Policy; HESI
Counseling, Higher Education, and Special Education (CHSE)

Research Labs, Centers, Affiliations and Special Appointments:
Consortium on Race, Gender and Ethnicity
Latin American Studies Center
Affiliate Faculty, Women's Studies Department


Research Interests | Bio | Honors & Awards | Grants & Projects | Publications | Curriculum Vitae |

Research Interests

The political economy of education and development with specific research interests in globalization, neoliberalism, and education; the role of aid agencies; education, human rights, and social justice; the education of disadvantaged populations; the role of class, gender, and race in reproducing and challenging educational and social inequality; and alternative approaches to education and development.


Professional Biography

Prof. Klees is Professor of International Education Policy at the University of Maryland. He did his Ph.D. at Stanford University and has taught at Cornell University, Stanford University, Florida State University, and the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil. He was a Fulbright Scholar on two occasions at the Federal University of Bahia in Brazil.

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Honors & Awards

Comparative & International Education Society's Outstanding Scholarship Award, 1987
Fulbright Scholar Award, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, 1987 and 1992
Comparative & International Education Society, Vice-President & President, 2007-2009
Outstanding Mentor Award, Department of Education Policy and Leadership, 2006

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Grants & Projects

African Teacher Project -- co-PI with Jing Lin and Nelly Stromquist. Study of the problems faced by women secondary school teachers in Uganda, Tanzania, and Mali. Financed by MacArthur Foundation, Open Society Foundation, UBS Optimus Foundation, and an anonymous donor ($725,000 for 3 years).

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Selected Publications


Women Teachers in Africa: Challenges and Possibilities. N. Stromquist, S. Klees, J. Lin (Eds.) New York: Routledge, forthcoming.

S. Klees, J. Samoff, and N. Stromquist (Eds.) (2012). World Bank and Education: Critiques and Alternatives. Rotterdam: Sense

Journal Articles

“Will We Achieve Education for All and the Education Sustainable Development Goal,” Comparative Education Review, forthcoming.

Edwards Jr., D. B., Klees, S., & Wildish, J. “Dynamics of low-fee private schools in Kenya: Governmental legitimation, schools-community dependence, and resource uncertainty,” Teachers College Record, forthcoming.

“Human Capital Theory and Rates of Return: Brilliant Ideas or Ideological Dead Ends?” Comparative Education Review, November 2016, 60, 4, 644-672.

“Inferences from Regression Analysis: Are They Valid?” Real World Economics Review, April 2016, 74, 85-97.

Edwards Jr., D. B., & Klees, S. “Unpacking participation in development and education governance: A framework of perspectives and practices,” Prospects, December 2015, 45, 4, 483-499.

Klees, S. and Edwards, D.B. “Privatizacao da Educacao: Experiencias dos Estados Unidos e Otras Paises,” Revista Brasileira da Educacao, 20, 60, jan-mar. 2015, 11-30.

Haugen, C., Klees, S., Stromquist, N., Lin, J., Choti, T., and C. Corneilse.  “Increasing Female Primary School Teachers in African Countries:  Effects, Barriers, and Policies,” International Review of Education, 60, 6, 2015, 753-776.

Klees, S. and Qargha, O. “Equity in Education: The Case of UNICEF and the Need for Participative Debate,” Prospects, 44, 3, September 2014, 321-33.

Stromquist, N., Lin, J., Corneilse, C., Klees, S. and C. Haugen. "Women Teachers in Liberia: Social Forces Accounting for their Underrepresentation," International Journal of Educational Development, 33, 5, September 2013, 521-30.

Ginsburg, Mark, Kristin Brady, Alexandra Draxler, David Edwards, Steven Klees, Paula Luff, and Harry Patrinos (2012, February). Public-Private Partnerships and the Global Reform of Education in Less Wealthy Countries - A Moderated Discussion. Comparative Education Review, 56(2).

Aid, Development and Education, Current Issues in Comparative Education, 13(1), 2011, 7-27.

Klees, S., Winthrop, R. and A. Adams. (February 11, 2010). Many Paths to Universal Primary Education: Time to Replace the Indicative Framework with a Real Country-Driven Approach, Brookings Institution Policy Briefs, Global Views No. 13.

The Future of Comparative and International Education Revisited, CIES Perspectives, January 2010, 3-7.

A Quarter Century of Neoliberal Thinking in Education: Misleading Analyses and Failed Policies, Globalization, Societies and Education, 7(1), 2009, 311-348.

Reflections on Theory, Method, and Practice in Comparative and International Education, CIES Presidential Address, Comparative Education Review, 52(3), August 2008, 301-28.

NGOs, Civil Society, and Development: Is There a Third Way? Current Issues in Comparative Education, 10(1&2) Spring 2008/Fall 2008.

Klees, S. and Thapliyal, N. The Right to Education: The Work of Katarina Tomasevski, Comparative Education Review, 51(4), November 2007, 497-510.

World Bank Education Policy: New Rhetoric, Old Ideology, International Journal of Educational Development, 22, 2002, 451-74.

Education and the Economy: Considering Alternative Perspectives, P. Easton and S. Klees, Prospects, 20(4), December, 1990, 413-28.

Planning and Policy Analysis in Education: What Can Economics Tell Us. Comparative Education Review, 30(4), November, 1986, 574-607.

Chapters in Books

Klees, S., Jawoko, E., and Muwanga, N. “Women Teachers in Uganda: Voices from the Field,” in N. Stromquist, S. Klees, and J. Lin (Eds.) Women Teachers in Africa: Challenges and Possibilities. NY: Routledge, forthcoming.

Haugen, C., Klees, S., Stromquist, N., Lin, J., Choti, T., and Corneilse, C. “Increasing the Number of Female Schoolteachers in African Countries,” in N. Stromquist, S. Klees, and J. Lin (Eds.) Women Teachers in Africa: Challenges and Possibilities. NY: Routledge, forthcoming.

Stromquist, N., Lin, J., Corneilse, C., Klees, S., Choti, T., and Haugen, S. “Women Teachers in Liberia: Social Forces Accounting for Professional Underrepresentation,” in N. Stromquist, S. Klees, and J. Lin (Eds.) Women Teachers in Africa: Challenges and Possibilities. NY: Routledge, forthcoming.

“Foreword,” In S. Vally and E. Motala (Eds.) Education, the Economy, and Society.  Johannesburg: Unisa Press, 2014.

"Localization of the Millennium Development Goals," In J. Coonrod (Ed.) State of Participatory Democracy Report.  NY: UN Development Fund and The Hunger Project, 2014.

Klees, S.J. & Edwards Jr., D.B. (2014). "Knowledge production and technologies of governance in education," In T. Fenwick, E. Mangez, & J. Ozga (Eds.), World Yearbook of Education 2013: Governing knowledge: Comparison, knowledge-based technologies and expertise in the regulation of education. New York: Routledge.

Klees, S. and Qargha, O. "The Economics of Aid:  Implications for Education and Development," In Macleans, A. and Majhanovich, S. (eds.). Education, Economics, and Development. Rotterdam: Sense, 2013.

UNESCO vs. World Bank: The Struggle Over leadership in Education. In Engel, L. C. & Rutkowski, D. (Eds.), UNESCO without US funding: Implications for education worldwide. Policy brief. University of Indiana: Center for Evaluation and Education Policy, 2012.

A. Hickling-Hudson and S. Klees. (2012). Alternatives to the World Bank's Strategies for Education and Development, In S. Klees, J. Samoff, and N. Stromquist (Eds.), World Bank and Education: Critiques and Alternatives. Rotterdam: Sense

Edwards Jr., D. Brent and Steven Klees. (2012). Participation in Development and Education Governance. In A. Verger, M. Novelli and H. Kosar-Altinyelken (Eds.), Global Education Policy and International Development: New Agendas, Issues and Programmes. New York: Continuum.

The Language of Education and Development, in Birgit Brock-Utne and Gunnar Garbo (Eds.), Language and Power: Implications of Language for Peace and Development. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2009.

S. Klees, I Rizzini and A. Dewees. A New Paradigm for Social Change: Social Movements and the Transformation of Policy for Street and Working Children in Brazil. In R. Mickelson (Ed.), Children on the Streets of the Americas: Homelessness and Education in the United States, Brazil, and Cuba. London: Routledge, 2000.

Newspaper and Opinion Articles

“Privatization and Education: Capitalism and Context” Education International, June 3, 2016.

“The Need for an SDG Demonstration in Education. Why Wait Till 2030?!” Norrag News, November 13, 2015.

“Pro-Growth is Not Pro-Poor,” Project Syndicate, October 9, 2015.

“Getting Universal Education Right,” Project Syndicate, September 23, 2015,
(re-published in 14 countries in 4 languages)

“Measurement Fetishism,” Education International, July 16, 2015,

“For-Profit Private Schooling for the Poor: Bridging the Gap? Education International, June 25, 2015,

“Why World Bank Praise for a Profit-Making Education Firm in Kenya was a Bad Idea,” The Conversation, June 19, 2015,

“Why Economic Evidence Cannot Help Establish Post-2015 Priorities,” Education International, October 21, 2014,

“Education as if People Mattered,” Education International, July 22, 2014,

"Whither Post-2015?  A Critique of the Post-2015 High Level Panel's Education and Economic Goals," Norrag News, July 18, 2013,

"What's Wrong with Low-Cost Private Schools for the Poor?" Education International, May 28, 2013,

Education and the U.S. Elections, Education International, October 23, 2012,

Principles for a Post-2015 EFA and Education MDGs, Global Campaign for Education, September 27, 2012,

Why does the World Bank Hate Teachers, Education International, September 21, 2012

Critical Elements for a Post-2015 Education Agenda, This is Africa, September 3, 2012,

Reading Mania, Education International, August 16, 2012,

Evaluating Teachers: Value-Added Has No Value, Education International, July 4, 2012,

The Economic Crisis and Education: Key Issues, Education International, June 4, 2012,

The Superintendents' Wrong Solution: Alonso's and Others Blame - Teacher Mentality Won't Fix Schools, Baltimore Sun, October 21, 2010.

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Curriculum Vitae

Curriculum Vitae

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