College of Education *
College of Education *
Peter Afflerbach (TLPL)
Peter Afflerbach
Contact Information:
Room: 2304L Benjamin Building
Phone: (301) 405-3159
E-mail: afflo@umd.edu

Peter Afflerbach (Ph.D., The University at Albany, State University of New York)
Professor; LLSI
Teaching and Learning, Policy and Leadership (TLPL)

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Research Interests | Bio | Honors & Awards | Publications | Curriculum Vitae |

Research Interests

Research includes focus on reading comprehension strategies and processes, especially related to new literacies; the verbal reporting methodology; reading in Internet and hypertext environments; and, reading assessment.

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Professional Biography

Dr. Peter Afflerbach is Professor of Reading in the Department of Teaching and Learning, Policy and Leadership at the University of Maryland.  He began his teaching career as a Chapter One teacher in grades K-6, and he then taught remedial reading and writing in junior high school and high school English.  He received his Ph.D. in Reading Psychology and his MS in Developmental Reading from the State University of New York at Albany. 

Dr. Afflerbach’s research interests focus on reading assessment, reading comprehension strategies, and the verbal reporting methodology.  His most recent work focuses on aspects of individual differences in reading development that are sometimes neglected in reading theory and practice, including motivation and engagement, metacognition, student self-efficacy and self-concept, and epistemic beliefs. 

Peter has published in numerous research and practitioner journals, including The Reading Teacher, Journal of Reading, Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, Journal of Educational Psychology, Language Arts, Elementary School Journal, Journal of Literacy Research, Reading Research Quarterly and Cognition and Instruction.  He has also published dozens of book chapters, policy briefs, technical reports, and position papers.

Dr. Afflerbach has served for 14 years on the Standing Reading Committee of the National Assessment of Educational Progress.  He was a member of the 2009 NAEP Reading Framework Committee and of the Feedback Committee for the Common Core State Standards/English Language Arts.  He has served on numerous committees and panels for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL), and the National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects (NARAP). 

Dr. Afflerbach’s most recent book, Understanding and using reading assessment, K-12, 2e, was published in 2012. Recently, he served as an associate editor of the journal Metacognition and Learning. He is co-editor of the Handbook of Reading Research, 4e.  He serves on the editorial boards of Reading Research Quarterly, and The Reading Teacher.  In addition, Dr. Afflerbach is an author of the Pearson/Scott Foresman elementary reading series, Reading Street.

Dr. Afflerbach has won numerous awards.  His dissertation won both the International Reading Association’s Outstanding Dissertation Award, and the Literacy Research Association’s Outstanding Student Research Award.  Dr. Afflerbach has earned awards from the American Educational Research Association for his classroom assessment research, and his reviewing in Educational Researcher.  Peter was elected to the International Reading Association’s Reading Hall of Fame in 2009.

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Honors & Awards

  • American Educational Research Association, Outstanding Reviewer Award,
  • Educational Researcher. Award presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA, April, 2011.
  • Elected to The Reading Hall of Fame, International Reading Association.
  • Induction at the annual meeting of the International Reading Association, Minneapolis, MN, May, 2009.
  • American Educational Research Association, Outstanding Research Paper Award.
  • Classroom Assessment Special Interest Group. Award presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA, April, 2002.
  • Ford Foundation, Curriculum Transformation Project: Globalization, Gender, & Culture. University of Maryland at College Park, MD. January, 1996-June, 1996.
  • Elva Knight Research Award. International Reading Association. May, 1996-April, 1998. The challenge of understanding the past: How do fifth grade readers construct meaning from diverse history texts? (with Bruce VanSledright).
  • Lilly Endowment/Center for Teaching Excellence, Lilly Teaching Fellows Program, 1992-1993, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
  • Ford Foundation, Emory University, Curriculum Innovation Project Award, 1986-1987, Using think-aloud protocols to study the processes of writing and conferencing.
  • Outstanding Dissertation of the Year Award, 1985, International Reading Association, for "The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Expert Readers' Main Idea Construction Processes." Award presented at the annual meeting of the International Reading Association, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April, 1986.
  • Outstanding Student Research Award, 1985, National Reading Conference, for "The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Expert Readers' Importance Assignment Skills.
  • Award presented at the annual meeting of the National Reading Conference, San Diego, California, December, 1985.
  • State University of New York at Albany Benevolent Association Research Award, December, 1983. Funding for the dissertation research proposal, The influence of prior knowledge on expert readers' main idea construction processes
  • New York State Department of Education, Division of Federal Demonstration Programs, Dolgeville Central School, Dolgeville, NY, 1980-1981. A picture stimulated writing program for remedial reading students.

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Selected Publications

Afflerbach, P. (2012). Understanding and using reading assessment, K-12. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, 2nd edition.

Afflerbach, P. (2010). Understanding and using reading assessment, K-12. Seoul: Hankook Publishing. (This is the Korean language version of the book.) .

Afflerbach, P. (Ed.). (2010). Essential readings in reading assessment. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. .

Kamil, M., Pearson, P., Moje, E., & Afflerbach, P. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of reading research, 4/e. New York: Routledge. .

Brozo, W., & Afflerbach, P. (2010). Adolescent literacy inventory. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. .

Johnston, P., Afflerbach, P., Krist, S., Pierce, K., Spalding, E., Tatum,A., & Valencia, S. (2009). Standards for the Assessment of Reading and Writing The IRA-NCTE Joint Task Force on Assessment. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. .

Afflerbach, P. (2007). Understanding and using reading assessment, K-12. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. .

Hoffman, J., Baumann, J., & Afflerbach, P. (2000). Balancing principles for teaching elementary reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates. .

Baker, L., Afflerbach, P., & Reinking, D. (1996). Developing engaged readers in home and school communities. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates. .

Pressley, M., & Afflerbach, P. (1995). Verbal protocols of reading: The nature of constructively responsive reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates. .

Valencia, S., Hiebert, E., & Afflerbach, P. (1994). Authentic reading assessment: Practices and possibilities. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. .

Afflerbach, P. (1990). Issues in statewide reading assessment. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. .

Afflerbach, P. (1987). The influence of prior knowledge on expert readers' main idea construction processes. Outstanding Dissertation Monograph Series. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. .

Afflerbach, P. (1985). The statewide assessment of writing. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. .

Chapters in Books .

Afflerbach, P., Cho, B., Kim, J., & Crassas, M. (In press). Best practices in literacy assessment. In L. Gambrell, & L. Morrow (Eds.) Best practices in literacy instruction,4e. New York: Guilford Press. .

Afflerbach, P., Cho, B., & Kim, J. (2011). The assessment of higher order thinking skills in reading. In G. Schraw (Ed.) Current perspectives on cognition, learning, and instruction: Assessment of higher order thinking skills, pp. 185-215. Omaha, NE: Information Age Publishing. .

Afflerbach, P., & Clark, S. (2011). Diversity in language arts assessment. In D. Lapp & D. Fisher (Eds.) Handbook of research on the teaching of the English language arts, pp. 307-313. New York: Routledge. .

Afflerbach, P. (2011). Reading assessment. In T. Rasinski (Ed.) Developing reading instruction that works, pp. 261-281. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press. .

Afflerbach, P., & Cho, B. (2010). Classroom assessment of reading. In M. Kamil, P. Pearson, E. Moje, & Afflerbach, P. (Eds.) Handbook of reading research, 4/e, pp. 487-514. London: Routledge. . .

Afflerbach, P., Cho, B., Kim, J., & Clark, S. (2010). Classroom assessment of literacy. In D. Wyse, R. Andrews & J. Hoffman (Eds.) The International Handbook of English, Language and Literacy Teaching, pp. 401-412. London: Routledge. .

Afflerbach, P., & Cho, B. (2009). Reading strategies and reading strategy instruction. In W. Schneider & H. Waters (Eds.) Metacognition, strategy use, and instruction: A festschrift for Michael Pressley. New York: Guilford Press. .

Afflerbach, P., & Cho, B. (2009). Identifying and describing constructively responsive comprehension strategies in new and traditional forms of reading. In S. Israel & G. Duffy (Eds.), Handbook of reading comprehension research, pp. 69-90. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates. .

Afflerbach, P. (2008). From reading to science: Assessment that supports and describes student achievement. In C. Stearns & J. Coffey (Eds.) Connecting science assessment and instruction, pp. 317-336. Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association. .

Afflerbach, P. (2008). Meaningful assessment of struggling readers. In S. Lenski and J. Lewis (Eds.) Reading success for struggling adolescent readers, pp. 249- 264. New York: Guilford Press. .

Afflerbach, P., Pearson, P., & Paris, S. (2007). Skills and strategies: Their differences, their relationships, and why it matters. In K. Mokhtari & R. Sheorey (Eds.) Reading strategies in first- and second- language learners: See how they read, pp. 11-24. Norwood, MA: Christopher Gordon. .

Afflerbach, P., Ruetschlin, H., & Russell, S., (2007). Assessing strategic reading. In R. McCormack & J. Paratore (Eds.) Classroom literacy assessment, pp. 177-194. New York: Guilford Press. .

Afflerbach, P. (2007). Working towards a balanced approach: Best practices in literacy assessment. In L. Gambrell, L. Morrow, & M. Pressley (Eds.) Best practices in literacy instruction, 264-282. New York: Guilford Press. .

VanSledright, B. & Afflerbach, P. (2005) Assessing the status of historical sources: An exploratory study of eight U.S. elementary students reading documents. In P. Lee (Ed.) International Review of History Education, Vol. 4, 1-20. London: Routledge. .

Afflerbach, P. & Meuwissen, K. (2005). Integrating self-assessment strategies with middle school students. In S. Israel & K Bauserman (Eds.) Metacognition and literacy learning, pp. 141-164. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates. .

Afflerbach, P. (2005). Collaboration and elementary level reading strategies. In G. Bush (Ed.) Every student reads: Collaboration and reading to learn. Chicago, IL: American Association of School Librarians, pp. 11-13. .

Afflerbach, P. (2004). Assessing adolescent literacy. In J. Dole and T. Jetton (Eds.) Adolescent literacy: Research and practice, pp. 369-391. New York: Guilford Press. .

Afflerbach, P. (2002). Authentic assessment of reading. In B. Guzetti (Ed.) Literacy in America: An encyclopedia of history, theory, and practice, pp. 36-39. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. .

Afflerbach, P. (2002). The use of think-aloud protocols and verbal reports as research methodology. In M. Kamil (Ed.) Methods of literacy research, pp. 87-103 Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates. .

Afflerbach, P. (2001). Teaching reading self-assessment strategies. In C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.) Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices, pp. 96-111. New York: Guilford Press. .

Leipzig, D., & Afflerbach, P. (2000). Determining the suitability of assessments: Using the CURRV Framework. In L. Baker, M. Dreher, & J. Guthrie (Eds.) Engaging young readers: Promoting achievement and independence, pp. 159-187. New York: Guilford Press. .

Afflerbach, P. (1999). Report cards and reading. In S. Barrentine (Ed.) Reading assessment: Principles and practices for elementary teachers, pp. 57-68. Newark, DE: .

Afflerbach, P. (1999). STAIR: A system for recording and using what we observe and know about our students. In S. Barrentine (Ed.) Reading assessment: Principles and practices for elementary teachers, pp. 91-100. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Afflerbach, P. (1999). Verbal reports and protocol analysis. In Pearson, P., Kamil, M., Barr, R., & Mosenthal, P. (Eds.) Handbook of reading research 3/e, 163-179. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

Pressley, M., Wharton-McDonald, R., Rankin, J., El-Dinary, P., Brown, R., Afflerbach, P., Mistretta, J., & Yokoi, L. (1998). Teaching how to learn within domains. In G. Phye (Ed.) Handbook of academic learning, pp. 152-198. San Diego: Academic Press.

Afflerbach, P. (1998). Reading assessment and learning to read. In R. Anderson, J. Osborn, & F. Lehr (Eds.) Literacy for all: Issues in teaching and learning., 239-263. New York: Guilford Press.

Afflerbach, P. (1998). Helping students become constructively responsive readers. In P. Reitsma & L. Verhoven (Eds.) Problems and interventions in literacy development, pp. 349-363. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

DiStefano, L., Pearson, P., & Afflerbach, P. (1997). Content validation of the 1994 NAEP in Reading: Assessing the relationship between the 1994 assessment and the reading framework. In R. Linn, R. Glaser, & G. Bohrnstedt (Eds.), Assessment in Transition: 1994 Trial State Assessment Report on Reading: Background Studies, 45-67. Stanford, CA: The National Academy of Education.

Afflerbach, P. (1996). Engaged assessment of engaged reading. In Baker, L., Afflerbach, P., & Reinking, D (Eds.). Developing engaged readers in home and school communities. pp. 191-214. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

Baker, L., Afflerbach, P., & Reinking, D. (1996). Developing engaged readers in home and school communities. In Baker, L., Afflerbach, P., & Reinking, D (Eds.). Developing engaged readers in home and school communities. pp. xi-xxiv. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

Valencia, S., Hiebert, E., & Afflerbach, P. (1994). Understanding authentic reading assessment: Definitions and perspectives. In Valencia, S., Hiebert, E., & Afflerbach, P. (Eds.) Authentic reading assessment: Practices and possibilities. pp. 6- 21. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Hiebert, E., Valencia, S., & Afflerbach, P. (1994). Realizing the possibilities of authentic assessment: Current trends and future issues. In Valencia, S., Hiebert, E., & Afflerbach, P. (Eds.) Authentic reading assessment: Practices and possibilities. pp. 286- 300. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Afflerbach, P. (1994). Large-scale authentic assessment. In Valencia, Sheila, Hiebert, Elfrieda, & Afflerbach, Peter. (Eds.) Authentic reading assessment: practices and possibilities. pp. 193-196. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Afflerbach, P. (1993). Constructing meaning from diagnostic assessment texts: Validity as usefulness. In R. Joshi & C. Leong (Eds.) Differential diagnosis and treatment of reading and writing disorders. pp. 63-71. Brussels, BELGIUM: KluwerNijhoff.

Afflerbach, P. (1991). The call for assessment of reading at the statewide level. In P. Afflerbach (Ed.) Issues in statewide reading assessment. pp. 5-14. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.

Afflerbach, P. (1991). Statewide reading assessment: A survey of the states. In P. Afflerbach (Ed.) Issues in statewide reading assessment. pp. 101-161 Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.

Afflerbach, P. & Johnston, P. (1986). What do expert readers do when the main idea is not explicit? In J. Baumann (Ed.) Teaching main idea comprehension. pp. 49-72. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Articles in Refereed Journals

All articles are refereed unless marked with asterisk (*), which denotes a solicited and contributed article for a refereed journal.

Afflerbach, P., Pearson, D., & Paris, S. (2008). Clarifying differences between reading skills and reading strategies. The Reading Teacher, 61, 364-373. *Veenman, M., van Hout-Wolters, B., & Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition and learning: Conceptual and methodological issues. Metacognition and Learning, 1, 3- 14.

Salinger, T., Kamil, M., Kapinus, B., & Afflerbach, P. (2005). Development of the framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress in reading. 54 th Yearbook of the National Reading Conference, 1-15.

*Afflerbach, P. (2005). High stakes testing and reading assessment. Journal of Literacy Research, 37, 1-12.

*Afflerbach, P. (2002). The road to folly and redemption: Perspectives on the legitimacy of high stakes testing. Reading Research Quarterly, 37, 348-360.

Afflerbach, P., & VanSledright, B. (2001). Hath? Doth? What! The challenges Peter Afflerbach CV 9 middle school students face when reading innovative history text. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 44, 696-707.

VanSledright, B., & Afflerbach, P. (2000). "But the pale faces knew it not": Using revisionist history texts to challenge traditional views of America's past. Theory and Research in Social Education, 28, 411-444.

Pressley, M., Brown, R., El-Dinary, P., & Afflerbach, P. (1996). The comprehension instruction that students need: Instruction fostering constructively responsive reading. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 11, 177-204.

Afflerbach, P., & Moni, K. (1995). The intended and interpreted meanings of teachers� evaluative feedback to students� during reading lessons. Yearbook of the National Reading Conference, 137-147.

*Afflerbach, P., & Kapinus, B. (1993). Reading assessment: The balancing act, Reading Assessment in Practice, pp. 11-14. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, 1995.

Guthrie, J., Schafer, W., Wang, Y., & Afflerbach, P. (1994). Influences of instruction on amount of reading: An empirical exploration of a social, cognitive, and instructional factors. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 8-25.

*Afflerbach, P., Moni, K., Dwyer, S., & Kleindinst, C. (1994). Involving students in assessing their reading: The winter count. The Reading Teacher, 48, 80- 83. Afflerbach, P. (1993). Report cards and reading. The Reading Teacher, 46, 457- 465.

Afflerbach, P. & Johnston, P. (1993). Writing language arts report cards: Eleven teachers' conflicts of knowing and communicating. Elementary School Journal, 94, 73- 86.

Johnston, P., Afflerbach, P., & Weiss, P. (1993). Teachers' evaluation of teaching and learning of literacy. Educational Assessment, 1, 91-117.

*Afflerbach, P. (1993). STAIR: A system for recording and using what we observe and know about our students. The Reading Teacher, 47, 260-263. (Reprinted in Reading Assessment in Practice, pp. 5-10. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, 1995).

Afflerbach, P. & Walker, B. (1992). Main idea instruction in basal readers. Reading Research and Instruction, 32, 11-28.

Afflerbach, P. & Sammons, R. (1992). Report cards in literacy evaluation: Teachers' training, practices, and values. Literacy: Issues and Practices, 9, 10-18.

Afflerbach, P. (1991). Reading assessment at the statewide level. Literacy: Issues and Practices, 8, 6-11.

Afflerbach, P. (1990). The influence of prior knowledge and text genre on readers' prediction strategies. Journal of Reading Behavior, 22, 131-148.

Afflerbach, P. (1990). The influence of prior knowledge on expert readers' main idea construction strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 25, 31-46.

Afflerbach, P. & Walker, B. (1990). Prediction instruction in basal readers. Reading Research and Instruction, 29, 26-45.

Afflerbach, P. (1989). What expert readers say about prediction. Georgia Journal of Reading, 14, 11-15.

Afflerbach, P.; Bass, L., Hoo, D., Smith, S., Weiss, L., & Williams, L. (1988). Pre-service teachers using think-aloud protocols to study the processes of writing. Language Arts, 65, 693-701.

Spencer, E., & Afflerbach, P. (1988). Young children's explanations of spaces between words in written text. In J. Readence & R. Baldwin (Eds.) Dialogues in literacy research. Annual Yearbook of the National Reading Conference, Chicago, IL: National Reading Conference, 304-312.

Afflerbach, P. (1987). Variables influencing importance assignment. Research in literacy: Merging perspectives, 127-134 Annual Yearbook of the National Reading Conference. Rochester, NY: National Reading Conference.

Afflerbach, P. (1987) How are main idea statements constructed? Watch the experts! Journal of Reading, 30, 512-518.

Afflerbach, P. (1986). The influence of prior knowledge on expert readers' importance assignment processes. In J. Niles & R. Lalik (Eds.) Solving problems in literacy: Learners, teachers, and researchers, 30-40. Annual Yearbook of the National Reading Conference. Rochester, NY: National Reading Conference.

Afflerbach, P. (1986). Overcoming children's reluctance to revise informational writing. Journal of Teaching Writing, 4, 170-176.

Johnston, P., & Afflerbach, P. (1985). The process of constructing main ideas from text. Cognition and Instruction, 2 (3 & 4), 207-232.

Johnston, P., Allington, R., & Afflerbach, P. (1985). The congruence of remedial and classroom reading instruction. Elementary School Journal, 85, 465-477.

Afflerbach, P. & Johnston, P. (1984). On the use of verbal reports in reading research. Journal of Reading Behavior, 16, 307-322.

Johnston, P., & Afflerbach, P. (1983). Measuring teacher and student change in a remedial reading clinic. In J. Niles & L. Harris (Eds.) Searches for meaning in reading/language processing and instruction. Annual Yearbook of the National Reading Conference, 304-311. Rochester, NY: National Reading Conference.

Afflerbach, P., Allington, R., & Walmsley, S. (1980). A basic vocabulary of U.S. federal social program applications and forms. Journal of Reading, 23, 332-336.

Commissioned Manuscripts, Research Reports, Conference Proceedings, and Extension Publications

Brinkley, M., Afflerbach, P., & Kelly, D. (2004). A content comparison of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Reading Assessments. Commissioned Research Paper for the United States Department of Education, National Center for Educational Statistics.

Afflerbach, P. (2003). High Stakes Testing and Reading Assessment. Commissioned Policy Brief for the National Reading Conference.

Afflerbach, P., Almasi, J., Guthrie, J., & Schafer, W. (1996). Barriers to the implementation of a statewide performance assessment program: School personnel perspectives. Reading Research Report 51. Athens, GA: National Reading Research Center.

Almasi, J., Afflerbach, P., Guthrie, J., & Schafer, W. (1995). Effects of a statewide performance assessment program on classroom instructional practice in literacy. Reading Research Report 32. Athens, GA: National Reading Research Center. Guthrie, J., Schafer, W., Afflerbach, P., & Almasi, J. (1994). Systemic reform of literacy education: State and district-level policy changes in Maryland. Reading Research Report 27. Athens, GA: National Reading Research Center. Schafer, W., Guthrie, J., Almasi, J., & Afflerbach, P. (1994). Test quality for use in curricular and instructional decision making in reading. Reading Research Report 28. Athens, GA: National Reading Research Center.

Afflerbach, P., & Moni, K. (1994). Legislators, reporters, and reading assessment. Reading Research Report 31. Athens, GA: National Reading Research Center

Afflerbach, P., & Johnston, P. (1993). Eleven teachers composing language arts report cards: Conflicts in knowing and communicating. Technical Report No. 3.3, Albany, NY: Center for the Study of the Teaching and Learning of Literature.

Guthrie, J., Schafer, W., Wang, Y., & Afflerbach, P. (1993). Influences of instruction on amount of reading: An empirical exploration of a social, cognitive, and instructional factors. Reading Research Report No. 3. Athens, GA: National Reading Research Center.

Johnston, P., Weiss, P., & Afflerbach, P. (1989). Teachers' evaluations of teaching and learning in literacy and literature. Technical Report No. 3.4, Albany, NY: Center for the Study of the Teaching and Learning of Literature.

Afflerbach, P., Allington, R., & Walmsley, S. (1981). A basic vocabulary of U.S. federal social program applications and forms. In K. Kimmel (Ed.) Reading. Lexington, MA: Ginn & Co., 1981.

Other Publications

Afflerbach, P. (2009). Accountability testing: Getting situated. Educational Researcher, 38, 467-468.

Afflerbach, P., & Moni, K. (1996). Improving the usefulness and effectiveness of reading assessment. Instructional Resource No. 33. Athens, GA: National Reading Research Center.

Afflerbach, P. (1994). Report cards. In A. Purves (Ed.) Encyclopedia of English Studies and Language Arts. p. 1029. New York: Scholastic, Inc.

Afflerbach, P. (1994). Main idea. In A. Purves (Ed.) Encyclopedia of English Studies and Language Arts. p. 776-778 New York: Scholastic, Inc.

Afflerbach, P. (1991). Foreward in J. Baumann & D. Johnson (Eds.) Writing For Publication: Publishing Professional and Instructional Materials in Reading and Language Arts. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. (pp. v-vi).

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Curriculum Vitae

Curriculum Vitae

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